It would not be difficult to erase substantial trade imbalances using a simple rule. If any trading partner has more than a certain percentage trade imbalance, say 15% more exports to the US than imports, impose an additional 5% tariff on all goods from that country each year (so 5%, 10%, 15%, etc) until the imbalance falls below that number.
The gradual, but unlimited, increase in tariffs would create enormous pressure on offending countries to increase imports from the US. The gradual nature of the increases would not create a self destructive economic shock. When the import/export ratio falls, the tariffs could be reduced gradually as well.