If every answer spawns 3 new questions, then our ignorance expands faster than our knowledge. Welcome to the The Technium: The Expansion of Ignorance .
There seems to be a circular problem when one asks the question, "What Is Knowledge". The question seems to arrive at a circular argument, in which theory and proof support each other. In order to arrive at the answer to the question I have to possess and use what is in question. How do I get off the merry-go-round?
Perhaps it is ignorance that supports the notion of knowledge. Clearly we do not enter into life with very much knowledge, if any. Nevertheless, we come with a set of instructions, which is in and of itself information, that enables us to gather information about ourselves and the environment we are born into. Thus, I feel safe to say that knowledge, at the very least, involves a process that "communicates" information to information. In which case, ignorance would be the result of a communication breakdown.
Depending upon which theory one uses, information cannot travel faster than the speed of light (relativity). However, when two particles are entangled communication of information seems instantaneous (quantum). I cannot know what is on the other side of the universe until the information reaches me. However, some things are, or seem, universally true, and therefore, I may claim I know that gravity likely works the same on the other side of the universe as on my side of the universe. Yes, I am indeed making an assumption that gravity is universal, but there is equally no information that can disprove the assumption I make concerning gravity is false.
With all the above put on the table, it is one thing to have information in hand, but if one does not "know" what the information means, then we are back to ignorance. So, perhaps knowledge cannot be assigned to information by itself, or at all. Perhaps knowledge is all about meaning. Meaning, to me, is grounded in certainty, because uncertainty offers only chaos, confusion, paradox and vanity.
Certainty is a concept that shares the virtues of truth, reality, validity, absoluteness, and many other goodies that we as human beings love and seek out 24/7. Our minds are obsessed with trying to sort out all the information it receives and collapse it all into some meaning or valid conclusion.
I hold certainty in the highest of most high positions. Over time I have adjusted my thought process to hold that certainty is an omni present, omni potent principle that cannot be confused or attached to any condition that involves change or form. Simply, certainty is truth/reality, and truth/reality is unconditional. Rather, certainty is a ghost like agency that shares none of the virtues of the material aspects of the universe and cannot be described in terms that are related to space and time. I will also say that I believe that the soul of every conscious being and the material universe is this timeless and formless certainty. For it is in this agency of certainty that all meaning, validity, truth and reality resides. For all intents and purposes reality is God and the first and last necessity (i.e. the alpha and omega).
Certainty seems to present the same circular conundrum as knowledge, in that certainty confirms itself and it leaves no room for doubt. Certainty can't be questioned or denied. Much the same I cannot question my own reality or ask how do I know I know? "I think therefor I am". At the very least I know that I do not know.